The Area Tiger King and the mushrooms on Mars

The Area Tiger King and the mushrooms on Mars

Jerry van Andel sat alone on the bow of the RV Lulu, a floating junkyard of a ship, because it bobbed towards the waves of the Pacific Ocean. Throughout deck, a crew of scientists bustled round a basket stuffed with unusual life varieties, wrenched from a mighty crack within the Earth, 10,000 ft beneath the ocean’s floor.

It was a momentous haul, however van Andel, an brisk Dutch oceanographer from Stanford College, wasn’t dancing across the discover with the remainder of the crew. He was deep in thought, propped up on the anchor windlass. A shipmate, John Porteus, seen and shuffled over.

“What’s up?” Porteus requested.

“They do not understand what we have found,” van Andel replied.

It was 1977. Scientists had simply noticed life, thriving, in an oceanic ridge on the backside of the ocean for the primary time. They anticipated a desert; they discovered an oasis. Weird fish swam by way of darkish smoke billowing out of rock chimneys. Mollusks clung to hydrothermal vents and otherworldly rift worms — 6-foot-tall tubes adorned with blood-red plumage — swayed within the present. 

The RV Lulu’s mission contained no biologists. It wasn’t designed to search for life within the ocean depths. However researchers discovered it anyway. Subsisting on a weight-reduction plan of poisonous hydrogen sulfide in whole darkness,below bone-crushing strain, the place was actually alive. Because the bucket of specimens was raised to the floor, van Andel instantly grasped the importance of the discover: The definition of “life” was being rewritten.

Riftia pachyptila, the tube worm found on the backside of the ocean. 

Woods Gap Oceanographic Establishment

The invention had profound impacts on scientists’ understanding not solely of life on our planet, however of the potential for all times elsewhere within the photo voltaic system. If life may thrive 10,000 ft beneath the ocean, then maybe it may thrive on different planets, too. Planets like Mars.

It appears unlikely the Martian floor, uncovered to the harshness of house, may comprise something however the ghostly relics of existence. The planet is simply too dry. Too chilly. However many consider that not solely does life exist on Mars, however NASA has already found it.

In 1976, a yr previous to the RV Lulu’s discovery 10,000 meters beneath the ocean, NASA landed two beetle-shaped spacecraft, Viking 1 and Viking 2, on the floor of Mars. It was the primary time the company had reached the floor of the purple planet. The landers have been interplanetary laboratories, carrying a set of devices able to detecting life. Just a few weeks after touching down, Viking began performing organic experiments with soil samples from the floor. The primary outcomes that trickled again to Earth have been astounding: optimistic. 

Life on one other planet. 

However was it actually? 

The experiment

Observing a flickering TV monitor inside NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Gilbert Levin waited nervously together with his collaborator Patricia Straat as information from throughout the cosmos trickled in. It was the evening of July 30, 1976, and Levin, a 52-year-old public well being engineer with a eager curiosity in microorganisms, was receiving outcomes from an experiment that had taken place over 200 million kilometers away on the floor of Mars.

Ron Levin pointing at a newly launched picture from Viking on a monitor from the biology crew room at JPL. 

Ron Levin

Inside a small chamber on the metallic hull of Viking 1, a soil pattern was being examined for indicators of radioactivity. The check, referred to as the Labeled Launch experiment, was designed to take Martian soil and spray it with a soup of radioactive vitamins. If there have been microbes within the soil, they’d slurp up the soup and launch it into the chamber as a radioactive fuel — a response that may very well be detected by devices onboard Viking and, theoretically, show that life existed on Mars. 

On the evening of the experiment, Levin’s son, Ron, was stationed one ground beneath the biology crew at JPL. He pressed his resist a plastic window, watching information from the mission being printed onto fanfold paper as Viking slowly despatched outcomes dwelling. He may see, by way of the window, indicators of a optimistic detection. 

He shortly ran upstairs to inform his dad and the biology crew. Their pressure dissipated. At round 9 p.m., the primary full readout had been delivered to the lab, exhibiting a pointy curve on the graph. It was the primary signal life would possibly exist elsewhere within the cosmos.

“I used to be so excited I despatched out for champagne and a cigar,” Levin, now 96, remembers.

Extra experiments have been required to verify what the LR experiment was seeing. Every week later, Levin ordered a second pattern to be taken and heated to 160 levels centigrade — killing any microbes that may be within the soil — after which handled with the radioactive soup. This time the readout confirmed nothing, as anticipated. 

“The pre-mission standards for all times detection had been happy,” Ron says. “Dad discovered microbial life within the soil of Mars.”

In whole, Viking carried out 9 exams, and all appeared to level to the identical conclusion. However the pleasure was short-lived. One other experiment on the lander didn’t detect natural molecules obligatory for all times, main NASA scientists to hypothesize the LR experiment had detected an unknown chemical response going down within the soil. 

“They determined our experiment was fallacious,” Gilbert Levin says. 

The prince of panspermia

Rhawn Gabriel Joseph believes the LR experiment was proper. 

Joseph is an enigma wrapped in a riddle wrapped in a shirt unbuttoned to his abdomen. He’s, in accordance with his autobiography, a well known and acclaimed neurobiologist. He enjoys the ocean, strolling alongside the seashore and climbing. His self-published articles argue life has been discovered on Mars and Venus, and propagate another view of life’s beginnings.

That concept is “panspermia.” It holds that life first arose in house and that planets within the photo voltaic system have been “seeded” with microbes carried throughout the cosmos by mud, meteors and particles.

“Panspermia is a type of issues the place all of the biologists are saying, ‘Perhaps it may have occurred, however we have no proof for it’,” says Paul Myers, a developmental biologist on the College of Minnesota, Morris. Myers has refuted the idea previously, resulting in clashes with Joseph and his colleagues, a gaggle he calls “the panspermia mafia.”

Two of panspermia’s largest proponents are famed astronomer Fred Hoyle, who died in 2001, and his protege Chandra Wickramasinghe. Hoyle helped unravel “stellar nucleosynthesis,” a course of that happens in stars to generate all of the chemical parts within the cosmos and, in collaboration with Wickramasinghe, the pair found the natural materials that makes up cosmic mud. Nonetheless, within the latter components of their careers, the 2 have made controversial claims with little proof to again them up, together with the concept that viruses, just like the flu and coronavirus, come from house.

Myers says the tutorial pedigree of Hoyle and Wickramasinghe gave panspermia an air of credibility within the 1970s, serving to the pair popularize it as a renegade view of the origins of life. However the concept has served as a launching pad for nonsensical, pseudoscientific theories — together with Joseph’s perception that Mars is stuffed with mushrooms, fungi and lichen. 

Wickramasinghe stays the godfather of panspermia, persevering with to publish on the idea in books and his personal journals. Rhawn Gabriel Joseph is the inheritor obvious. 

Fred Hoyle (left), Chandra Wickramasinghe (heart) and Lee Spetner with an image of the fossil Archaeopteryx, which they erroneously claimed was a pretend.



Most of what I find out about Joseph comes through his web site, The positioning instantly invokes the spirit of one other well-known Joseph — the Tiger King, Joseph Maldonado-Passage — with photoshopped pictures of Rhawn posing in entrance of a fiery mushroom cloud studying a novel, black hair puffed atop his head, chest hair peeking out from a child blue shirt. The positioning feels prefer it hasn’t been up to date because the ’90s, a far cry from the wall-of-text curriculum vitaes usually related to lecturers and researchers.

It features a 2,000-word biography the place Joseph particulars his childhood and pursuits rising up, together with the “profound impression” {that a} decapitated hen, operating backward and forward, made on him when he was a toddler. One other story recounts his first intimate expertise, at age 13, together with his “deliciously beautiful, long-legged” neighbor, a girl he says he gazed at “like a hungry lion gazing steak.” 

These weird asides make means for educational credentials, explaining Joseph’s formative years as a neuroscientist within the 1970s when he made “main discoveries” within the subject,  earlier than pivoting to his present quest, searching for the origins of life. In 2009, he based his personal journal, the Journal of Cosmology (JOC), and, he claims, by 2011 it was “probably the most learn, most talked about scientific journal on this planet.” 

However JOC is not actually a journal, it is a web site. Its credibility has been routinely referred to as into query by fellow lecturers and it is served as a bastion for fringe scientific beliefs promulgated by a cabal of renegade researchers since inception. In a single occasion, it revealed claims by ex-NASA scientist Richard Hoover that fossilized micro organism, born in house, have been found in meteorites on Earth. NASA shot down the bogus claims, stating they hadn’t been completely reviewed by specialists, and so they have been extensively rebuked by the astrobiological neighborhood.

A screengrab of Rhawn Joseph’s web site,, on June 29.

Joseph’s personal controversial claims about life on Mars have solely sometimes been talked about within the mainstream press and, principally, have been met with suspicion. Essentially the most high-profile of those got here in February 2014, when he filed a lawsuit towards NASA compelling the company to look at a “putative organic organism” seen in pictures beamed again from Mars by the Alternative rover. The “organism” was later confirmed to be a rock. 

Since then, Joseph has hardly ever been heard from. Exterior of a now-defunct YouTube channel, which amassed tens of millions of views on its movies about historic historical past, alien life and struggle atrocities, he maintains no social media accounts. He’s not affiliated with any scientific establishments or universities bar the “Mind Analysis Laboratory,” which he established himself in 1986, and “Astrobiology Associates of Northern California San Francisco.” Neither have a web-based presence or a bodily tackle and Joseph’s title seems solely 4 occasions in PubMed, a web-based repository of analysis papers maintained by the Nationwide Institutes of Well being — all earlier than 1989. His educational credentials pale compared to Hoyle and Wickramasinghe.

Joseph stays a mysterious determine, the invisible prince of a ramshackle kingdom. And whereas his contentious views of the cosmos have principally been ignored by NASA and the broader scientific neighborhood, he is lately claimed a breakthrough.

The mushrooms on Mars

The primary interplay I had with Rhawn Gabriel Joseph was through an e mail despatched to journalists on April 11 of this yr. The topic line was eyebrow-raising: “Life on Mars revealed by Nature/Springer.” Connected to the e-mail was a 50-page doc claiming proof strongly helps the thought “mushrooms, algae, lichens, fungi and associated organisms” are current on the Martian floor.

It contained 13 pictures, obtained by NASA’s Alternative rover throughout its time in Eagle Crater. These predominantly featured zoomed and cropped pictures of Martian “blueberries,” spherical rocks composed of hematite, a mineral made from oxygen and iron. The screed “refuted” the notion that these sphericules are hematite and as a substitute posited they could be photosynthesizing mushroom colonies.

The “blueberries” found by Alternative Rover in April, 2004. The blueberries are made from hematite, a typical iron oxide mineral.


The extraordinary claims have been accepted for publication and set to seem in a revered, long-running journal, referred to as Astrophysics & Area Science. Articles submitted to the journal bear peer overview, a course of permitting different scientists to anonymously consider and validate the analysis.

After I raised questions in regards to the veracity of Joseph’s analysis with Jeremy Mould, the editor in chief of Astrophysics & Area Science, a spokesperson for the journal confirmed it had investigated the peer overview course of and “revealed considerations over its robustness.” Additional peer critiques have been ordered, however Joseph withdrew the article from consideration, claiming the publishers had caved in to “strain from NASA.” Every week later, he determined to self-publish on one other web site of his, referred to as “Astrophysics and Area Science Evaluations,” a reputation eerily just like the Springer Nature journal. 

How Joseph’s piece moved previous the peer overview course of and was accepted for publication stays a thriller. The method often weeds out these explicitly non-scientific claims. Different astronomers and astrobiologists who examined the analysis soundly rebuked its conclusions, citing poor methodology and evaluation. 

Michael Brown, an astronomer at Monash College in Australia, mentioned “there’s some fairly horrible over-interpretation of blurry images,” whereas Gretchen Benedix, a geophysicist at Curtin College in Australia, famous “growing picture sizes to research the objects of curiosity doesn’t change the decision of the picture and due to this fact doesn’t give higher evaluation of the objects of curiosity.” 

Rocco Mancinelli, the editor in chief of the Worldwide Journal of Astrobiology, referred to as the science and logic “utterly flawed,” and mentioned he would advocate or not it’s rejected for publication.

A NASA spokesperson informed me “the consensus of the vast majority of the scientific neighborhood is that present situations on the floor of Mars aren’t appropriate for liquid water or complicated life.”

The Martian mushroom speculation fell aside. However six months earlier, Joseph’s theories of interplanetary fungi had already made it to the massive leagues.

The hazard (and the fungi on Venus)

In November 2019, Astrophysics & Area Science revealed Joseph’s paper, titled “Life on Venus and the interplanetary switch of biota from Earth.” 

The 18-page doc proposes that Russia’s Venera 13 lander, which spent 127 minutes on the floor of Venus in 1982 earlier than succumbing to excessive warmth, had photographed pictures of organisms resembling lichen and fungi. Like his Mars work, Joseph’s overview offers “proof” of life through grainy digital pictures stretched, cropped and zoomed to oblivion, however notes “similarities in morphology aren’t proof of life.” 

It is the primary and solely instance of a paper by Joseph to be revealed in a official, peer-reviewed journal within the final decade. However following the controversy over the Mars paper, Joseph requested Astrophysics & Area Science to withdraw his Venus overview and refund all publication prices, claiming that it publishes “pretend articles.” After I raised questions in regards to the paper, Springer Nature mentioned the Venus paper “will probably be fastidiously investigated following publishing finest apply.” It is nonetheless out there on-line and has been cited in at the least one different scientific paper in a key house science journal. On June 23, after elevating further questions in regards to the paper, an editor’s word was added

During the last decade, Joseph and JOC have principally been ignored by NASA and by the scientific neighborhood. Only a few scientists take the alien fungi claims critically, however Joseph’s work has been highlighted in UK tabloids, RT and plenty of well-meaning science information websites since February 2019. Some have touted Joseph’s web sites as “scientific journals” and even confused Joseph’s self-importance web site with official, equally named journals. One painted Joseph as somebody making an attempt to “defy the chances.”

And that is the place the hazard lies.

Astrobiology, the seek for and examine of extraterrestrial life, is a severe scientific endeavor. NASA has an astrobiology program, and looking for life is a important a part of its Mars exploration program. And though the general public appears proof against fanciful claims of fungal spores on Mars or lichen on Venus, they have not gone away. If something, social media appears to have made us extra gullible. As crank, fringe theories begin to collect steam in sincere peer-reviewed journals, the general public’s notion of astrobiology can shortly be muddied. 

“I really feel like these guys have simply poisoned the entire subject,” says Myers. 

Gil Levin, the scientist on Viking’s LR experiment, feels equally. He revealed in Joseph’s JOC in 2010 and has a historical past with Joseph, who nominated the work for a Nobel prize. However lately, Levin has distanced himself. “He obtained to be so erratic that I used to be afraid to be related together with his work,” he says. 

Joseph maintains that NASA has been infiltrated and is “managed by non secular fanatics” opposed to looking for extraterrestrial life. He claims he has ended his profession “by discovering and documenting the plain proof of life on Mars” and says he can solely anticipate China to research the planet as a result of NASA will “by no means inform the reality.” 

A picture taken by the Venera 13 lander from the floor of Venus.


The detective

Luther Beegle, a planetary scientist at NASA’s JPL, believes the reality is straightforward: Viking did not discover life on Mars. However he does say there’s an argument to be made that NASA obtained the order of the experiments all fallacious.

“They did Viking and obtained a bunch of outcomes they did not perceive,” says Beegle. He explains how Viking was designed as a biology experiment — however the house company did not have a agency understanding of the Martian soil or environment. It ought to have performed geology and chemistry first. The ambiguous outcomes from Viking’s LR experiment had a substantial affect on NASA’s exploration the purple planet. 

Beegle is a part of JPL’s science division and has overseen work carried out by the Curiosity rover because it arrived on Mars in 2012. The following Mars mission will see him turn out to be a modern-day Arthur Conan Doyle — solely his Sherlock Holmes is a 10-pound instrument mounted on the robotic arm of Perseverance, NASA’s next-gen Mars rover. 

“Scanning Liveable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemical substances” or Sherloc, because the instrument is affectionately recognized, will seek for indicators of life on the purple planet, virtually 50 years after Viking’s first experiments, when it launches to Mars in July. The instrument, and its companion digicam (nicknamed Watson), is able to taking microscopic pictures of Mars and analyzing them. Outfitted with a laser it could hearth on the floor, Sherloc is ready to measure chemical substances current within the soil and rock utilizing a way referred to as spectroscopy.

“We do two kinds of spectroscopy utilizing the identical laser,” Beegle explains. “The primary spectroscopy is Raman spectroscopy, the place we get molecular fingerprints.” 

The Raman spectrometer is ready to detect molecules like salts, hydrocarbons and even nucleotides — the chemical compounds that kind RNA and DNA. The opposite spectrometer detects fluorescence and, Beegle says, is designed to look primarily for fragrant organics, extremely steady molecules recognized to be necessary in biochemical processes.

If life did exist on Mars, Perseverance ought to be capable of discover it.

Perseverance previous to launch at NASA’s JPL


In February 2021, the rover is scheduled to the touch down in Jezero Crater, a area that was as soon as the positioning of a long-lived Martian lake. It comprises layers of sediment which will maintain the tell-tale indicators that life as soon as thrived there. Sherloc will map the floor of the crater on the microscopic degree, inch by inch, and the information it gathers will present a window into the previous. 

And Perseverance is tasked with the primary stage of a pattern restoration mission. The rover is anticipated to take core samples of the Martian soil throughout its time on the floor. “We will put them in pattern tubes to seal them up, after which we will depart them on the floor,” Beegle notes.

In 2026, a sample-return mission will launch with the intention of nabbing the dropped samples and putting them on a rocket to Martian orbit and ultimately again to Earth.

The underside of the ocean and the sting of the cosmos

The existence of deep-sea rift worms was inconceivable earlier than van Andel and a crew of undersea explorers found them, swaying within the heat waters of Earth’s hydrothermal vent system.

And whereas seeing them thriving on the backside of the ocean is proof sufficient of the number of methods life can exist, what makes the worms actually exceptional is invisible to the human eye. 

The worms haven’t any mouth and no intestine. They can not hunt for meals. As a substitute, as Colleen Cavanaugh found in 1981, trillions of microbes inhabit their our bodies, changing hydrogen sulfide and oxygen into vitality, a course of referred to as “chemosynthesis.” The worms rely on the micro organism to outlive. 

The invention of chemosynthesis within the rift worm helped change our perceptions of not simply the ocean ground, however the cosmos itself. A 2017 Nature paper described microfossils, as much as 4.three billion years outdated, current in sediment from historic hydrothermal vents. If micro organism did come up and survive below such situations, why could not they’ve performed so beneath the floor of Mars? Or within the abyss beneath the icy shell of Jupiter’s moon Europa? Maybe life may even reap the benefits of the hydrocarbon lakes current on the floor of Titan. These theories are but to be rigorously examined.

We discovered life thriving in locations we by no means anticipated virtually 50 years in the past. We will nonetheless be shocked. So we won’t, and should not, write off the idea of panspermia outright. We will not put a line by way of the concept that life is lurking beneath Mars’ barren exterior. The proof suggests it is extremely unlikely, however we won’t make sure. 

Alternatively, permitting discredited and outlandish claims of mushrooms on Mars or fungi on Venus to be revealed in official educational journals places us on a slippery slope. Misinformation spreads shortly and simply. It will possibly actively hurt sincere, rational astrobiology analysis. 

There isn’t a NASA conspiracy. We landed on the moon. The Earth shouldn’t be flat. Coronavirus did not come from outer house. There are not any fungi on Venus. 

And Mars shouldn’t be dwelling to mushrooms. 

Initially revealed June 30

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