Extraordinarily uncommon ‘cosmic ring of fireside’ found within the early universe

Extraordinarily uncommon ‘cosmic ring of fireside’ found within the early universe

The ring galaxy R5519 might have been created throughout an enormous, catastrophic collision between two galaxies within the early universe.

James Josephides/Swinburne Astronomy Productions

A violent, catastrophic collision between two galaxies has given rise to a particularly uncommon ring galaxy, lurking some 11 billion mild years from the Earth. The monstrous, donut-shaped galaxy is making stars in its enormous ring at a price 50 instances sooner than our dwelling galaxy, incomes it an ominous moniker Johnny and June Money would absolutely dig: The cosmic “ring of fireside.”

In a paper, revealed within the journal Nature Astronomy on Tuesday, a global workforce of scientists element the ring galaxy R5519, found after scouring information from the Hubble Area telescope and the W.M. Keck observatory in Hawaii. Amongst nearly 4,000 galaxies detected within the information units, R5519 was one of many brightest and displayed a transparent ring construction. So the workforce investigated additional — and shortly realized they’d discovered one thing uncommon. 

“It is vitally a curious object, one which we’ve by no means seen earlier than,” says Tiantian Yuan, an astronomer at Swinburne College in Australia and first writer on the research. “The big gap on this galaxy was attributable to a head-on collision with one other galaxy.”  

Probing the options of R5519, Yuan and her workforce started choosing up clues as to the way it shaped. They dominated out gravitational lensing or a galaxy merger for its uncommon construction and close by, they detected a companion galaxy — G5593. They think this cosmic neighbor is the “intruder” galaxy which will have collided with R5519 round 40 million years in the past. 

The 2 galaxies will need to have smashed into one another just about head-on — a galactic bulls-eye — and it is possible there was already a disk of stars current in R5519. As G5593 got here swooping by means of the galaxy, it cut up the disk by means of the heart and a wave of stars expanded from the middle, as seen within the GIF above.

“The collisional formation of ring galaxies requires a skinny disk to be current within the ‘sufferer’ galaxy earlier than the collision happens,” mentioned Kenneth Freeman, an astronomer at Australian Nationwide College and co-author on the paper, in an announcement. 

If R5519 is attributable to an enormous collision, that might make it a particularly uncommon cosmic phenomena. Just one in each 1000 galaxies within the native universe are shaped in such a manner. Notably, the early universe was far more crowded so the idea was these sort of collisions might have been extra widespread. Yuan suggests the information is telling a special story.

“Beforehand, folks suppose we might discover extra of those collisional ring galaxies within the younger universe, just because there are extra collisions again then,” she says. “We discover that’s not the case.”

There are nonetheless some “unsolved puzzles” concerning the ring of fireside, Yuan says. “We have no idea if this ring was a primary ring after the collision or it was the second ring.” She’s obtained additional information from W.M. Keck to resolve this problem.

Astronomers must collect extra information to make certain the ring is attributable to a collision, somewhat than by means of pure evolution. The authors of the paper write the imaging carried out by NASA’s soon-to-be-launched (and recently-assembled) James Webb Area Telescope will be capable of resolve any lingering questions. Yuan says she has already found one other ring galaxy possible shaped by a head-on collision — and it is a billion years older than the “ring of fireside.”

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